Calcium, the renin-aldosterone system, and the hypotensive response to nifedipine.
Ionic, hormonal, and blood pressure responses to a single oral dose of the calcium channel blocker nifedipine were assessed in 25 essential hypertensive subjects. When grouped according to their renin-sodium profile, low renin subjects had a greater hypotensive response to nifedipine (change in diastolic blood pressure -20.0 +/- 1.4 vs -6.4 +/- 1.0%; p less than 0.005) than did high renin hypertensive subjects. The initial level of serum ionized calcium predicted the blood pressure response to nifedipine (r = 0.70, p less than 0.001), as did the initial plasma renin activity (r = 0.65, p less than 0.005). Nifedipine induced a transient rise in serum ionized calcium (from 2.22 +/- 0.02 to 2.28 +/- 0.02 mEq/L; p less than 0.01), while plasma renin activity was consistently elevated compared with initial values at 30 (p less than 0.01), 60 (p less than 0.01), and 120 (p less than 0.05) minutes after drug administration. By comparison, plasma aldosterone levels did not rise and even declined at 30 (p less than 0.01), 60 (p less than 0.05), and 120 (p less than 0.05) minutes after nifedipine. These results suggest that low renin hypertension is more critically dependent on extracellular calcium than are higher renin forms and demonstrate that levels of serum ionized calcium, plasma renin activity, or both may predict the sensitivity of blood pressure to calcium channel blockade. Lastly, calcium may play a pivotal role in vivo in coupling renin stimulation to adrenal aldosterone responses.
- Copyright © 1987 by American Heart Association