Mechanisms underlying pressure-related natriuresis: the role of the renin-angiotensin and prostaglandin systems. State of the art lecture.
It has long been known that increments in renal perfusion pressure can induce an elevation of urine sodium excretion without changing renal blood flow or glomerular filtration rate. The mechanism underlying this pressure-related natriuresis remains undefined, although the interest in its elucidation has been stimulated by the notion that it may constitute the central phenomenon through which the kidney regulates blood volume and, thereby, blood pressure. Recently, the use of novel experimental techniques has disclosed some important clues about changes in renal hemodynamics that, along with changes in renal humoral regulators, allow us to visualize a possible sequence of events responsible for pressure-related natriuresis. According to this hypothesis, the autoregulatory responses responsible for maintaining glomerular filtration rate are elicited in preglomerular vasculature by changes in renal perfusion pressure. These myogenic responses are coupled through Ca2+ entry in juxtaglomerular cells with inversely related changes in the release of renin and, consequently, with the amount of angiotensin II generated in renal interstitium. The release of renin from juxtaglomerular cells is modulated by the synthesis of prostaglandin I2 from the adjacent endothelial cells. Interstitial angiotensin II could influence sodium tubular reabsorption directly by stimulating sodium transport in proximal renal tubules and indirectly by altering medullary blood flow and, thereby, medullary interstitial pressure. In the renal medulla, the effects of interstitial pressure on sodium reabsorption can be amplified by the release of prostaglandin E2 from interstitial cells. A deficient regulation of this relationship could result in a shift of the pressure-natriuresis curve, leading to hypertension.
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association