Dietary sodium change in primary aldosteronism. Atrial natriuretic factor, hormonal, and vascular responses.
Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) may be physiopathologically involved in several clinical conditions including human hypertension. However, few data are available regarding this putative hormone and its relationship to aldosterone, blood pressure, and vascular responsiveness to alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation in primary aldosteronism, a volume-expanded, low-renin model of human hypertension. For this reason, the behavior of supine and upright plasma ANF as related to aldosterone, blood pressure, and forearm alpha-adrenergic sensitivity (plethysmographic technique) to intra-arterial norepinephrine infusion was studied in eight patients with primary aldosteronism (five with adenomas, three with hyperplasia) before and at the end of two sequential 1-week low (20 mmol/day) and high sodium (200 mmol/day) diet periods. Basal, predict ANF concentrations decreased and increased after low and high sodium intakes, respectively. Furthermore, highly significant postural ANF decrements after 1 hour of standing occurred with each diet, although they were lower after the low than after the high sodium diet. Plasma aldosterone, either supine or upright, was insensitive to dietary sodium manipulations, suggesting the absence of ANF-mediated control of aldosterone secretion in our patients. In spite of about twofold higher ANF concentrations during the high than during the low sodium diet, forearm vascular sensitivity to intra-arterial norepinephrine infusion did not change during the study. Furthermore, systemic arterial blood pressure rose to a highly significant extent after dietary sodium content was increased, thus casting doubt on a role for ANF as an endogenous long-term modulator of systemic blood pressure and peripheral alpha-adrenergic sensitivity in patients with primary aldosteronism.
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association