Effects of hypertension and its reversal on canine arterial wall properties.
Segments of carotid, femoral, saphenous, and left circumflex coronary arteries were obtained from control, renal hypertensive, and nephrectomized hypertensive dogs for in vitro study of mechanical properties. Hypertension was produced in two-kidney dogs by unilateral renal artery constriction. After 3 months, the compromised kidney was removed in half of the dogs. Mean arterial pressure was significantly elevated in the hypertensive dogs after 3 months (127 +/- 2 vs 94 +/- 1 mm Hg for controls) and partially returned toward normal 3 months after nephrectomy (105 +/- 2 mm Hg). Pressure-diameter relations were determined under conditions of maximum active and passive smooth muscle activation. Contiguous segments were used for the determination of water and connective tissue content. Hypertension was associated with increased passive arterial wall stiffness at most sites, with a partial return toward normal after nephrectomy. Maximum responses to smooth muscle activation (active stress and constriction response) were augmented in arteries from hypertensive dogs and partially returned toward normal in the nephrectomized hypertensive group. The elastin content of these arteries was unchanged, while collagen content was nonuniformly decreased in renal hypertensive dogs. Small decreases were found in the radius-wall thickness ratio of some arteries. No significant mechanical changes occurred in the saphenous artery. The largest hypertension-related changes were found in the coronary arteries, which also exhibited the smallest recovery toward normal properties after nephrectomy. Considerable regional variability of changes in arterial wall in renal hypertensive and nephrectomized hypertensive dogs was found. Incomplete resolution of the hypertension and arterial wall changes by nephrectomy was found in this animal model.
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association