Abnormal renal responses to calcium entry blockade in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents.
In nine young normotensive subjects with no family history of hypertension and nine age-matched normotensive subjects with one parent with essential hypertension, effective renal plasma flow (p-aminohippuric acid clearance), glomerular filtration rate (inulin clearance), and excretion of sodium and exogenously administered lithium were measured for 90 minutes before and after administration of a single 20-mg oral dose of the calcium entry blocker nifedipine. Segmental tubular handling of fluid and sodium was estimated using lithium clearance as a marker of proximal tubular reabsorption. Nifedipine did not cause any change in subjects with no family history of hypertension, but in those with one hypertensive parent there was a marked increase in effective renal plasma flow (from 644 +/- 39 to 847 +/- 42 [SEM] ml/min x 1.73 m2; p less than 0.001) and a decrease in filtration fraction (from 17.6 +/- 1.0 to 12.6 +/- 0.4%; p less than 0.001), while the glomerular filtration rate was unchanged, thus suggesting a prevailing efferent vasodilation. Sodium excretion rate (p less than 0.02) and fractional sodium excretion (p less than 0.025) increased slightly but significantly in subjects with one hypertensive parent, but not in normotensive subjects with no family history of hypertension. Lithium clearance also rose (from 29.0 +/- 2.0 to 32.8 +/- 1.9 ml/min, p less than 0.001), and the derived value of fractional proximal reabsorption diminished (from 75.8 +/- 1.0 to 71.3 +/- 1.2%, p less than 0.001). Estimated distal delivery of sodium and absolute distal sodium reabsorption both increased significantly (p less than 0.005), while fractional distal sodium reabsorption was unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association