Physiological mechanisms for calcium-induced changes in systemic arterial pressure in stable dialysis patients.
The mechanisms by which variations in blood ionized calcium (Ca2+) influence systemic arterial pressures independent of changes in extracellular fluid volume, pH, and electrolytes are unknown. To study this issue, we dialyzed eight stable hemodialysis patients on three separate occasions during 1 week with dialysates differing only in calcium concentration. Ultrafiltration was adjusted to achieve the patient's estimated dry weight. Postdialysis Ca2+ was measured, as were arterial blood gases, electrolytes, magnesium, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and hematocrit. Blood pressures and two-dimensional, targeted M-mode echocardiograms were recorded with the patient in the supine position after 15 minutes of rest. Postdialysis, three different levels of Ca2+ were achieved. Other measured biochemical variables and body weight did not differ among the three study periods. Changes in Ca2+ correlated directly with changes in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures, left ventricular stroke volume, and cardiac output. In contrast, heart rate, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, and total systemic vascular resistance were not altered significantly by changes in Ca2+. Thus, alterations in Ca2+ within the physiological range affect systemic blood pressure primarily through changes in left ventricular output rather than in peripheral vascular tone in stable dialysis patients.
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association