Salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Hemodynamics and renal responses.
This study was performed with Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and Dahl salt-resistant (DR) rats to detect differences in cardiovascular hemodynamics and renal responses that might be involved in initiating salt-induced hypertension in DS rats. The effects of 4 weeks of 8% NaCl diet were studied in conscious, male DR and DS rats in which vascular and urinary catheters had been previously implanted. Results were compared with those obtained from control groups of DR and DS rats on 4 weeks of 1% NaCl diet. DR rats on 8% salt diet did not develop hypertension, and cardiac output and blood volume were unchanged; glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow, sodium excretion, and plasma atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) increased. DS rats on 8% salt diet developed hypertension, and cardiac output and blood volume increased; glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow, and sodium excretion did not change, despite an increase in ANF. DS and DR rats on 1% NaCl diet were subjected to ANF infusion. After ANF infusion DR rats had a decreased blood volume and an increased glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow, and sodium excretion; DS rats showed no significant changes in blood volume, glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow, or sodium excretion. ANF caused vasodilation in all regions studied in DR rats; DS rats showed vasodilation in all regions except the kidney. After acute volume expansion, although both DR and DS rats responded by an increase in cardiac output, only DS rats developed prolonged hypertension. This finding suggests an inadequate vasodilatory mechanism in DS rats. In response to acute volume expansion, renal resistance decreased in DR rats but not in DS rats. It is concluded that the primary hemodynamic disturbance in DS rats with salt-induced hypertension is an increase in cardiac output caused by blood volume expansion in the absence of any vasodilation. Comparison of the responses of DS and DR rats to high salt diets, ANF infusion, and acute volume expansion indicates that the salt-induced hypertension in DS rats is initiated by a diminished renal response to ANF.
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association