Impaired left ventricular functional reserve in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.
To determine whether patients with hypertension and especially those with left ventricular hypertrophy have subtle changes in cardiac function, we measured the increase in left ventricular ejection fraction and in systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume index ratio with exercise in 40 hypertensive patients and 16 age-matched normotensive volunteers. Twenty-two hypertensive patients without hypertrophy had normal end-systolic wall stress at rest and exercise responses. In contrast, the 18 patients with echocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy demonstrated a significant increase in end-systolic wall stress at rest compared with normal subjects (69 +/- 16 vs. 55 +/- 15 10(3) x dyne/cm2, p less than 0.05) despite having normal resting left ventricular size and ejection fraction. In patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, the increase in ejection fraction with exercise was less than in the normotensive control subjects (7 +/- 7 vs. 12 +/- 8 units, p less than 0.05), and delta systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume with exercise was reduced (3.3 +/- 3.8 vs. 8.3 +/- 7.7 mm Hg/ml/m2, p less than 0.05). The hypertensive patients with hypertrophy displayed a shift downward and to the right in the relation between systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume ratio and end-systolic wall stress compared with control subjects and hypertensive patients without left ventricular hypertrophy. Thus, hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiography and normal resting ejection fraction exhibit abnormal ventricular functional responses to exercise. This finding may have implications in identifying patients at higher risk for developing heart failure.
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association