Development of hypertension from unilateral renal artery stenosis in conscious dogs.
The renal and systemic changes after stenosis of the left renal artery (n = 5) or sham stenosis (n = 6) in conscious dogs were studied sequentially over 25 days. Stenosis produced a prompt rise in arterial pressure, which was at all times due to reduced peripheral vascular conductance, with no increase in cardiac output despite initial evidence of mild fluid retention. The decrease in peripheral conductance was attributable to 1) the stenotic kidney (25% of the total and due to the mechanical effect of the stenosis itself), 2) the nonstenotic kidney (about 15% of the total and not caused by angiotensin II), and 3) the nonrenal vasculature (60%). The decrease in conductance in the nonrenal vasculature was due partly to angiotensin II, but there was also a gradually developing non-angiotensin II component. Acute administration of captopril caused significantly greater changes in arterial pressure and peripheral conductance throughout the period of stenosis than before stenosis (and greater than in sham-stenosis dogs), indicating that angiotensin II was constricting the peripheral vasculature even when plasma renin levels were no longer elevated. In the stenotic kidneys, captopril produced a fall in renal vascular resistance, but renal blood flow did not rise because there was an approximately equal rise in the resistance of the stenosis. There was no evidence for a role for the autonomic nervous system in the hypertension, as ganglion blockade (pentolinium) had similar hemodynamic effects before and after stenosis. Thus, the hypertension was due at all times to reduced peripheral conductance, with the two kidneys responsible for 40% of this reduced conductance.
- Copyright © 1990 by American Heart Association