Sodium restriction in hypertensive patients treated with a converting enzyme inhibitor and a thiazide.
When the function of the renin system is inhibited, blood pressure becomes more dependent on changes in sodium and water balance. Diuretics alone and sodium restriction alone are additive to converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. However, it is not known if these two ways of reducing sodium balance are additive in the presence of established converting enzyme inhibition. We therefore performed a double-blind crossover study of the effects of moderate sodium restriction in 21 patients with essential hypertension who were already being treated with the combination of a converting enzyme inhibitor and a diuretic. After 1 month of captopril (50 mg twice daily) and hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg once daily) therapy, with their usual sodium intake, average supine blood pressure was 147/96 +/- 5/3 (SEM) mm Hg 2 hours after treatment. Patients then reduced their sodium intake to around 80-100 mmol/day for the remainder of the study. After 2 weeks of sodium restriction, they entered a double-blind, randomized, crossover study of Slow Sodium (100 mmol sodium/day) compared with Slow Sodium placebo, while continuing sodium restriction and the above treatment. During the double-blind study, after 1 month of treatment with captopril (50 mg twice daily), hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg once daily), and Slow Sodium placebo, supine blood pressure 2 hours after treatment was 138/88 +/- 4/2 mm Hg (24-hour urinary sodium 104 +/- 11 mmol). After 1 month of captopril (50 mg twice daily), hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg once daily), and Slow Sodium tablets, supine blood pressure 2 hours after treatment was 147/91 +/- 5/2 mm Hg (p less than 0.05; 24-hour urinary sodium 195 +/- 14 mmol).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association