Quinapril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, prevents cardiac hypertrophy during episodic hypertension.
Six control dogs, six dogs treated with 1.5 mg/kg b.i.d. quinapril, and six dogs treated with 8 mg/kg q.d. minoxidil underwent 6 hours daily of hindquarter compression for 9 weeks. Minoxidil significantly decreased baseline blood pressure (-17 mm Hg; p less than or equal to 0.01), whereas quinapril decreased baseline blood pressure 11 mm Hg but not significantly (p = 0.15). Hindquarter compression elicited blood pressure increases in all three groups (control +18, quinapril +13, minoxidil +19 mm Hg). After 9 weeks, left ventricular mass in control dogs increased 22% (p less than 0.004); a similar increase was seen in minoxidil-treated dogs (+22%, p less than 0.0001) but not in the quinapril-treated group (+4%, p less than 0.15). The increase in left ventricular mass in control dogs was concentric (increased epicardial volume only), whereas in the minoxidil group, the hypertrophy was eccentric (both epicardial and endocardial volumes increased). The minimal hypertrophy in the quinapril group was concentric (no change in epicardial, but a decrease in endocardial volume). Quinapril had little hypotensive effect, but prevented the development of left ventricular hypertrophy, whereas minoxidil did not prevent hypertrophy in spite of its hypotensive effect. The mechanism of this differential effect of direct vasodilation versus converting enzyme inhibition on left ventricular hypertrophy is not fully elucidated. The results with quinapril suggest that some antihypertensive agents may positively affect left ventricular hypertrophy in spite of the absence of a large effect on baseline blood pressure or on blood pressure reactivity.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association