Cellular ions in hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. A nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study.
To investigate the cellular basis linking hypertension, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and obesity, we used 31P and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure intracellular pH (pHi), free magnesium (Mgi), and cytosolic free calcium (Cai) in erythrocytes of obese and NIDDM subjects with and without hypertension. Compared with normotensive, nondiabetic controls (Cai, 25.2 +/- 1.4 nM; Mgi, 232 +/- 8 microM), Cai was elevated in both normotensive (36.8 +/- 2.7 nM, sig = 0.005) and hypertensive (43.4 +/- 2.9 nM, sig = 0.001) NIDDM subjects, and Mgi was concomitantly suppressed (normotensive: 206 +/- 11 microM, sig = 0.05; hypertensive: 196 +/- 8 microM, sig = 0.001). Similar but less striking changes were noted in obese subjects. Values of pHi were significantly lower (sig = 0.05) in all hypertensive groups compared with their normotensive controls. Continuous relations were observed for all subjects between Cai and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.649, p less than 0.001) and body mass index (r = 0.565, p less than 0.001), between Mgi and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.563, p less than 0.001) and fasting blood glucose (r = -0.580, p less than 0.001), and in diabetics, between pHi and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.680, p less than 0.001). Thus, the constellation of elevated Cai and suppressed Mgi and pHi levels is characteristic of the hypertensive state. These abnormalities of cellular ion handling in whole or in part common to hypertension, diabetes, and obesity may contribute to the pathophysiology of these syndromes and may help to explain their frequent clinical coexistence.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association