Renal vascular response to sodium loading in sons of hypertensive parents.
Studies of normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents offer the potential to identify inherited abnormalities that contribute to essential hypertension. We compared renal and systemic hemodynamic responses to saline infusion between normotensive sons of two hypertensive parents (SOHT) and sons of two normotensive parents (SONT) selected from the general population of Rochester, Minn. Hemodynamic measurements were performed after a week of low sodium intake (10 meq/day) and were repeated after a week of high sodium intake (200 meq/day). Despite being in the normotensive range, blood pressures in SOHT were higher than those in SONT during low sodium (124 +/- 3/85 +/- 3 versus 118 +/- 2/71 +/- 2 mm Hg, p less than 0.01) and high sodium (122 +/- 3/80 +/- 3 versus 112 +/- 2/70 +/- 2 mm Hg, p less than 0.05) conditions. Higher pressures in SOHT were associated with elevated systemic and renal vascular resistance. After a high sodium diet, renal vascular resistance in SOHT rose further during acute saline infusion, whereas systemic vascular resistance did not change. After a low sodium diet, this renal vasoconstrictor response to saline infusion in SOHT was not present, and renal vascular resistance fell to levels not different from SONT. Plasma renin activity, aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic peptide did not differ between SONT and SOHT. Circulating levels of norepinephrine were higher in SOHT. These data demonstrate a renal vasoconstrictor response to saline infusion in normotensive SOHT, which depends on prior sodium intake. This alteration in renal hemodynamics may represent an inherited abnormality related to the development of hypertension.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association