Angiotensin II receptor antagonists. From discovery to antihypertensive drugs.
Some simple N-benzylimidazoles, originally described by Takeda Chemical Industries (Osaka, Japan), were characterized to be very weak but selective nonpeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor antagonists with a competitive mode of action. Chemical modifications of these led to EXP6155 and EXP6803, which showed approximately 10- and 100-fold higher affinity, respectively, but were orally ineffective. Oral activity was obtained for the biphenyl carboxylic acid derivatives EXP7711 and especially EXP9654. A further advance in the design of nonpeptide Ang II receptor antagonists was provided by DuP 753, an analogue of EXP7711 in which the carboxylic acid function is replaced by its tetrazol-5-yl equivalent. DuP 753 (2-n-butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)bi phe nyl-4- yl)methyl]imidazole, potassium salt) displaces radiolabeled Ang II from its specific binding sites in various tissues, affording IC50 values of approximately 20 nM. DuP 753 competitively antagonizes Ang II-induced responses in various in vitro and in vivo preparations but does not influence those to KCl, norepinephrine, vasopressin, and others, nor does it affect converting enzyme and renin. In high renin animal models of elevated arterial blood pressure, intravenous and oral administrations of DuP 753 produce a sustained decrease in pressure without influencing heart rate. Marked antihypertensive effects are observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats, but no efficacy is noticed in deoxycorticosterone acetate hypertensive animals. DuP 753 showed no agonistic properties in any of the above test systems and has been chosen to undergo clinical trials for the treatment of hypertension. In rats, the 5-carboxylic acid (EXP3174) represents a major metabolite of DuP 753.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association