Endocrine sodium and volume regulation in familial hyperkalemia with hypertension.
The hormonal regulation of sodium and volume homeostasis was investigated in three patients (two related) with the syndrome of familial hyperkalemic acidosis and hypertension with normal glomerular filtration rate. Recumbent plasma renin activity was low during normal sodium intake (135 mmol daily), and the response to upright posture or to low sodium diet (10 mmol daily) was blunted. Recumbent plasma aldosterone levels were normal in two patients and high in one, and the standing values were elevated in one; responses to upright posture were brisk on low sodium diet. Angiotensin II infusion induced a marked increase in plasma aldosterone. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide was at the upper limit of normal during normal sodium intake, decreased during diuretic therapy, and increased during sodium chloride infusion in one patient. Basal urinary prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha excretion rates were decreased, and thromboxane B2 was increased. Total blood and plasma volumes were subnormal, whereas extracellular fluid volume and exchangeable sodium values were close to or above (in one patient) the mean normal values. Chronic treatment with hydrochlorothiazide in two patients corrected the hyperkalemic acidosis and hypertension, but on its discontinuation (in one patient) all biochemical abnormalities promptly reappeared.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association