Increased systolic pressure in chronic uremia. Role of arterial wave reflections.
To assess the role of arterial wave reflections in the mechanism of systolic hypertension and altered pulsatile arterial dynamics in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), 79 ESRD patients were compared with 73 age-matched control subjects with normal renal function and similar mean blood pressure. Wave reflections were investigated from the carotid pulse contour recorded by applanation tonometry using a Millar micromanometer-tipped probe. Wave reflections were quantified as the ratio (augmentation index, %) of the height of the late systolic peak to the total height of carotid pulse wave. Travel time of the reflected wave was timed from the foot of the pressure wave to the foot of the late systolic peak. Systolic and pulse pressure were increased in ESRD patients (p less than 0.001) and was not attributable to differences in left ventricular ejection pattern. The augmentation index was increased in ESRD patients (23.2 +/- 15.0 versus 9.8 +/- 15.6%; p less than 0.001) in association with a shorter travel time of reflected wave (109 +/- 24 versus 131 +/- 30 msec; p less than 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed two principal factors associated (p less than 0.001) with the increase in augmentation index and shortened travel time of reflected wave: increased aortic pulse wave velocity and smaller stature with shorter body height in ESRD patients. The study points to the role of arterial wave reflections in the mechanisms producing alterations in pulsatile arterial dynamics in ESRD and is the first, through the mechanisms of early wave reflections, to show in humans that the increase in systolic and pulse pressures is associated with lesser body size.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association