Elevated hepatic insulin extraction in essential hypertension.
Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia are common characteristics of patients with untreated hypertension. However, the link between the vascular and metabolic disturbances is still unclear. To provide further insights into the metabolic picture of subjects with hypertension, we evaluated insulin resistance, pancreatic secretion, and hepatic extraction of the hormone in 16 untreated patients with essential hypertension before and after 12-16 weeks of drug treatment in comparison with 16 age-, sex-, and body weight-matched normotensive control subjects. All subjects underwent an oral and a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Metabolic parameters were calculated by the minimal model technique. The hypertensive patients exhibited a highly reduced tissue insulin sensitivity (2.6 +/- 0.4 versus 9.6 +/- 1.9 10(4) min-1/[microunits/mL]; p < 0.001). The basal secretion rate (70 +/- 11 versus 35 +/- 5 pmol/L per minute) and the total amount of prehepatically secreted insulin (32 +/- 4 versus 16 +/- 2 nmol/L in 4 hours) were significantly increased in the hypertensive patients compared with the control subjects (p < 0.01), whereas the posthepatic insulin delivery rate was not significantly different between the two groups (4.9 +/- 0.6 versus 3.5 +/- 0.3 nmol/L in 4 hours). Hepatic insulin extraction was found to be significantly elevated in the hypertensive patients compared with control subjects (81 +/- 4% versus 69 +/- 3%, p < 0.04). Increased hepatic insulin extraction partially ameliorated B cell hypersecretion in hypertensive patients. After 12-16 weeks of drug treatment, the blood pressure was normalized, but the metabolic profile of the patients remained unchanged. We conclude that elevated insulin extraction in the liver is a specific characteristic of individuals with essential hypertension and partially compensates pancreatic B cell hypersecretion.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association