Effect of diltiazem on glomerular heparan sulfate and albuminuria in diabetic rats.
Calcium entry blockers, particularly diltiazem, have been shown to lower not only systemic blood pressure but also improve proteinuria in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The presence of proteinuria is attributed to the loss of glomerular heparan sulfate, which confers a negative charge on the basement membrane. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of diltiazem in lowering blood pressure and proteinuria in diabetic rats and also examined the possibility that diltiazem prevents proteinuria through glomerular preservation of heparan sulfate. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). One group of diabetic rats was treated with diltiazem (25 mg/L) in drinking water for 20 weeks. Another group of diabetic rats and a group of nondiabetic rats were given tap water only. Systolic blood pressure was measured at 4, 8, 12, and 20 weeks. Urinary excretion of albumin was done at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks. At the end of 20 weeks, all rats were killed, kidneys were removed, and glomeruli were isolated. Total glycosaminoglycan and heparan sulfate synthesis were determined by incubating glomeruli in the presence of [35S]sulfate. Diltiazem lowered blood pressure significantly in diabetic rats at 8, 12, and 20 weeks. Diabetic glomeruli synthesized less total glycosaminoglycan and heparan sulfate than glomeruli from normal rats. Characterization of heparan sulfate by ion-exchange chromatography showed that the fraction eluted with 1 M NaCl was significantly lower and the fraction eluted with 1.25 M NaCl significantly higher in diabetic than in normal rats. Diltiazem therapy returned not only glomerular synthesis but also various fractions of heparan sulfate to normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association