Antihypertensive effect of pioglitazone is not invariably associated with increased insulin sensitivity.
Hypertension is often associated with insulin resistance, and several chemically diverse agents that increase insulin sensitivity attenuate the development of experimental hypertension. We undertook the present study to determine whether attenuation of hypertension by pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione derivative that increases insulin sensitivity without increasing insulin secretion, is specifically related to its effect on insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Pioglitazone administered daily by oral gavage (20 mg/kg per day) for 3 weeks attenuated the development of hypertension in both the Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rat (an insulin-resistant model of hypertension) and the one-kidney, one clip rat (a model of hypertension not associated with insulin resistance). Based on euglycemic insulin clamp studies in conscious animals, the glucose clearance rate was increased (P < .05) in pioglitazone-treated DS rats (36 +/- 3 mg/kg per minute) compared with control DS rats (27 +/- 1 mg/kg per minute). However, pioglitazone did not affect the glucose clearance rate in one-kidney, one clip hypertensive rats. Metformin, an unrelated agent that also improves glucose tolerance, had no significant effect on blood pressure or glucose clearance rate in either DS or one-kidney, one clip rats. Thus, the hypotensive effect of pioglitazone is not invariably associated with its capacity to improve insulin-induced glucose utilization.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association