Forearm blood flow reserve and cardiac and renal indexes of pressure load in normotensive and hypertensive individuals.
In response to hypertension, arterioles remodel their structure, the heart develops myocardial hypertrophy, and the kidney reduces creatinine clearance and increases albuminuria. To better understand the interrelations among the target organs involved in hypertension, we evaluated minimal forearm vascular resistances--a hemodynamic index of arteriolar structure derived from mean blood pressure and maximal postischemic forearm blood flow--the echocardiographic indexes of cardiac structure, and urinary albumin excretion and creatinine clearance in 29 male mild to moderate non-macroalbuminuric essential hypertensive patients on no drugs and 11 age- and sex-matched normotensive control subjects. Minimal forearm resistances were elevated in hypertensive patients and correlated with left ventricular mass, wall thickness, and mean arterial pressure. Patients with abnormal minimal forearm resistances (2 SD above normal) were characterized by higher pressure, greater wall thickness, lower creatinine clearance, and higher albumin excretion, suggesting that maximal forearm flow capacity does relate to the hemodynamic load exerted on both the kidney and heart. However, the correlation with cardiac structure and mean arterial pressure explained only part of the variability of minimal forearm resistances. Furthermore, no correlation among these parameters was found when hypertensive patients were evaluated separately from normotensive subjects, possibly because of heterogeneous factors active on arteriolar structure and unrelated to the pressor load. Overall, the data suggest that the development of abnormal minimal forearm resistances in the course of the hypertensive process is related to the pressor load, but its details need further understanding.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association