Renal hemodynamics in essential hypertension. Racial differences in response to changes in dietary sodium.
Previous studies have suggested striking racial differences in hypertension-related renal disease. To explore potential mechanisms responsible for these differences, we investigated changes in renal hemodynamics in white and black essential hypertensive patients in response to alterations in dietary sodium. Patients were untreated, age-matched, and blood pressure-matched white (n = 59) and black (n = 22) males with essential hypertension. Studies were conducted on an inpatient metabolic ward and included assessment of blood pressure, urinary sodium excretion, glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and renal blood flow after 5 days each of high and low salt diets. In response to high dietary salt intake, both white and black patients demonstrated significantly higher mean arterial pressure, renal plasma flow, and renal blood flow, and there were no racial differences in the changes in these parameters. However, whites and blacks differed significantly in glomerular filtration rate, with black hypertensive patients showing an increase in glomerular filtration rate (+17.3 +/- 5.3 mL/min per 1.73 m2, F = 7.586, P = .007) and white hypertensive patients showing no change (-0.2 +/- 3.3 mL/min per 1.73 m2) in response to high dietary sodium. These data demonstrate racial differences in the autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate in response to changes in dietary sodium. These differences suggest that glomerular hyperfiltration in response to a high salt diet may be a mechanism contributing to the racial disparity in hypertension-related renal disease.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association