Plasma concentration and acetylator phenotype determine response to oral hydralazine.
The vasodepressor response to single and multiple oral doses of hydralazine, 1 mg/kg, was studied in hypertensive patients. The concentration of hydralazine in plasma was measured both by a newly developed specific and a nonspecific assay similar to those used in previous studies. Acetylator phenotype was determined following oral sulfamethazine. Plasma hydralazine concentration peaked at 1 hour after administration and was undetectable 2 hours later. Apparent hydralazine was present in plasma in higher concentration and for a longer duration than hydralazine. The peak decreases in blood pressure (BP) were proportional to plasma hydralazine concentration following administration of both single and multiple doses and were substantially maintained for 8 hours. In contrast there was no significant correlation between decreases in BP and apparent hydralazine concentrations. The plasma concentration of hydralazine after a standard oral dose varied by as much as 15-fold among individuals and was lower in rapid than slow acetylator phenotype patients. The BP responses were positively correlated with plasma hydralazine concentrations and inversely correlated with acetylator indices. Low plasma concentrations may account for poor responses of some patients to conventional oral doses of hydralazine. The applicability of acetylator phenotyping for individualization of hydralazine dosage regimens merits further evaluation.
- Copyright © 1981 by American Heart Association