In recognition of outstanding contributions made in hypertension research, the Novartis (formerly Ciba) Award has been presented at the annual meeting of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research since 1975. The Novartis Award continues the tradition of the Ciba Award and the Stouffer Prize, first awarded to Ernst Klenk, MD, and Harry Goldblatt, MD, in 1966. In 1997, the Novartis Award was presented to three recipients.
Dr Carretero received the Novartis Award for his pioneering research on the role of the kallikrein-kinin system and other autocrine/paracrine vasoactive factors in the regulation of systematic circulation and regional blood flows, as well as the contribution of kinins to the cardioprotective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition.
Dr Carretero obtained his MD degree in 1961 from the National University of Cuyo in Argentina. After completing part of his postdoctoral training, he accepted a position as Assistant Professor of Physiopathology at the National University of Cuyo School of Medicine. Three years later, he became Director of the Hypertension Research Laboratory in the Department of Medicine for Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan, and in 1992, he was appointed Director of Graduate School for the Henry Ford Health Sciences Center at Case Western Reserve University. One year later, he was appointed to Professor of Medicine at the Henry Ford Health Sciences Center—a position he has held until the present.
Dr Carretero’s fundamental contributions began with his initial hypothesis in 1972 that renal kinins may be involved in the regulation of sodium and water excretion, acting as natriuretic and diuretic hormones. From there, he and his group have provided the hypertension field with numerous seminal and important contributions to our understanding of the role of both vasopressor and vasodepressor hormones and autacoids in the regulation of blood pressure, renal function, and the pathogenesis of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. In addition, he has shown that kinins are important mediators of the effect of ACE inhibitors.
Dr Carretero has been an important member of various editorial boards and prestigious societies, including the Council for High Blood Pressure Research where he has served on many committees and as Chairman, and the Inter-American Society of Hypertension where he has served as President. He has received numerous awards for his research and has encouraged others through various volunteer and community services.
Dr Cowley received the Novartis Award for defining the role of arterial baroreceptors in long-term pressure regulation, for groundbreaking work on the interaction of vasopressin with baroreceptors, for demonstrating the relevance of small elevations of blood volume upon arterial pressure; and for his seminal work defining the role of renal medullary blood flow in hypertension (see photo on page 562)
Dr Cowley received his BA degree at Trinity College, Connecticut, and his PhD degree in Physiology from Hahnemann Medical College in Philadelphia He then joined Dr Arthur Guyton at the University of Mississippi as a postdoctoral fellow in 1968 and was tenured at that institution at the rank of full Professor in 1974 He was appointed Chairman of the Department of Physiology at the Medical College of Wisconsin in 1980, a position he has held since that time.
Dr Cowley’s early work focused on research designed to quantify the relative importance of the various neurohormonal controllers in the short-term and long-term feedback control of arterial pressure, with emphasis on the role of the arterial and cardiac stretch receptors He has pioneered a variety of new techniques for the instrumentation and chronic monitoring and acquisition of hemodynamic data in unanesthetized dogs and rats The emphasis of his work over the past 20 years has been centered on the role of the kidney, especially the renal medulla, in the long-term regulation of arterial pressure with emphasis on vasopressin, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, and more recently, nitric oxide mechanisms involved in the control of renal blood flow and sodium and water excretion. He has relied heavily on biochemical and molecular techniques for quantification of these various controllers of arterial pressure and has made a number of important original contributions in these areas
Dr Cowley has long been an active member of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research and has served as its Chairman He is currently President of the American Physiological Society In addition, he has served on numerous NIH Study Sections and has recently been awarded the Distinguished Award of the American Heart Association and the Wiggers Award of the American Physiological Society He is currently the Principal Investigator of a Program Project Grant related to mechanisms of control of vascular and renal function and is the Principal Investigator and Director of the NIH Specialized Center for Hypertension Research at the Medical College of Wisconsin, which has as its emphasis the search for genes responsible for high blood pressure
Dr Heistad received the Novartis Award for his outstanding contributions toward our understanding of pathophysiology of the cerebral circulation and its relationship to hypertension and stroke (see photo on page 562)
Dr Heistad was born in Chicago He received his MD degree from the University of Chicago, where he also completed his internship and residency in Internal Medicine He received cardiology training at the University of Iowa, and served in the US Army as a research internist In 1970, Dr Heistad joined the faculty at the University of Iowa, where he is now University of Iowa Foundation Distinguished Professor of Internal Medicine and Deputy Director of the Cardiovascular Center
Dr Heistad’s research career spans 30 years, during which he has studied the effects of hypertension and atherosclerosis on blood vessels His work has paved the way for a better understanding of mechanisms that protect cerebral vessels against hypertension and those that can prevent its catastrophic complication—stroke He also has made landmark contributions to knowledge of the hemodynamic consequences of atherosclerosis and its regression Recent studies involved novel approaches for gene transfer to blood vessels.
Dr Heistad is Chair of the Council of Circulation of the American Heart Association and serves on editorial boards of several leading cardiovascular journals He has received numerous awards for his research, including the Harry Goldblatt Award of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research, the Irving S Wright Award of the Stroke Council, and the Merck Sharp & Dohme International Award for Research in Hypertension, from the International Society of Hypertension.