Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Homologous Downregulation of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Mrna by Angiotensin II
Recent studies suggest a crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for the signaling of Angiotensin II (Ang II) through type 1 Ang II receptor (AT1-R). However, the role of ROS in the regulation of AT1-R expression has not been explored. In this study, we examined the effect of an antioxidant on the homologous downregulation of AT1-R by Ang II. Ang II (10-6 mol/L) decreased AT1-R mRNA with a peak suppression at 6 hours of stimulation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Ang II dose-dependently (10-8-10-6) suppressed AT1-R mRNA at 6 hours of stimulation. Preincubation of VSMC with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, almost completely inhibited the Ang II-induced downregulation of AT1-R mRNA. The effect of NAC was due to stabilization of the AT1-R mRNA that was destabilized by Ang II. Ang II did not affect the promoter activity of AT1-R gene. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADH/NADPH oxidase failed to inhibit the Ang II-induced AT1-R mRNA downregulation. The Ang II-induced AT1-R mRNA downregulation was also blocked by PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase inhibitor. Ang II-induced ERK activation was inhibited by NAC as well as PD98059 whereas DPI did not inhibit it. To confirm the role of ROS in the regulation of AT1-R mRNA expression, VSMC were stimulated with H 2O2 . H2 O 2 suppressed the AT1-R mRNA expression and activated ERK. These results suggest that production of ROS and activation of ERK are critical for downregulation of AT1-R mRNA. The differential effect of NAC and DPI on the downregulation of AT1-R mRNA may suggest the presence of other sources than NADH/NADPH oxidase pathway for ROS in Ang II signaling. Generation of ROS through stimulation of AT1-R not only mediates signaling of Ang II but may play a crucial role in the adaptation process of AT1-R to the sustained stimulation of Ang II.