Association Between Periodontal Disease and Left Ventricle Mass in Essential Hypertension
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Chronic periodontitis has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Left ventricular mass is an established independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. In the present cross-sectional study, we tested the association between periodontitis and left ventricular mass in subjects with essential hypertension. One hundred four untreated subjects with essential hypertension underwent clinical examinations, including echocardiographic study, laboratory tests, and assessment of periodontal status according to the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN). With increasing severity of periodontitis, there was a progressive increase in left ventricle mass. Mean values (g/height2.7) were 39.0 (±2.7) in CPITN 0 (periodontal health), 40.2 (±6.4) in CPITN 1 (gingival bleeding), 42.7 (±6.8) in CPITN 2 (calculus), 51.4 (±11.7) in CPITN 3 (pockets 4 to 5 mm), and 76.7 (±11.3) in CPITN 4 (pockets ≥6 mm) (overall F 51.2; P<0.0001). Body surface area (P=0.04), systolic (P<0.0001) and diastolic (P<0.01) blood pressure, and left ventricular mass (P<0.0001) were determinants of a composite of CPITN 3 and 4. In a multivariate logistic analysis, left ventricular mass was the sole determinant (P<0.0001) of CPITN stages 3 and 4. Our findings suggest a direct association between severity of periodontitis and left ventricular mass in subjects with essential hypertension. Periodontal evaluation might contribute to refine cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive subjects.
- hypertension, essential
- left ventricular hypertrophy
- periodontal disease
- left ventricular mass
- Received September 26, 2002.
- Revision received October 22, 2002.
- Accepted January 3, 2003.