Changes in Metabolic Syndrome Variables Since Childhood in Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Subjects
The Bogalusa Heart Study
That essential hypertension is associated with metabolic syndrome is known. However, information is scant regarding the course of development of adverse levels of blood pressure and other risk variables of metabolic syndrome in youth at risk for developing hypertension. This aspect was studied, retrospectively, in a community-based cohort of normotensive (n=2206), prehypertensive (n=721), and hypertensive (n=328) subjects examined serially during childhood (4 to 11 years), adolescence (12 to 18 years), and adulthood (19 to 42 years). Prehypertensive subjects versus normotensive subjects had significantly higher body mass index and subscapular skinfold, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, and triglycerides beginning in childhood; higher glucose in adolescence; and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance index in adulthood. Hypertensive subjects versus normotensive subjects had higher adiposity measures, SBP and DBP, glucose, and triglycerides beginning in childhood; higher insulin and insulin resistant index in childhood and adulthood; and lower high-density lipoprotein, cholesterol in adulthood. Most of these variables progressed adversely at an increased rate in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. In a multivariate analysis, adverse changes in adiposity, SBP, and DBP were independently associated with prehypertensive status; and adverse changes in adiposity, SBP and DBP, insulin resistant index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides with hypertension status. As young adults, prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects showed significantly higher prevalence of obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemias. Thus, excess adiposity and blood pressure beginning in childhood and accelerated adverse longitudinal changes in risk variables of metabolic syndrome through young adulthood characterize the early natural history of hypertension.
- Received January 23, 2006.
- Revision received February 12, 2006.
- Accepted May 3, 2006.