The cardiovascular responses to exercise in children across the blood pressure distribution. The Muscatine study.
Children with elevated systolic blood pressure have a wide range of cardiac output. To better understand the mechanisms regulating resting and exercise blood pressure, we investigated the cardiovascular responses to both dynamic and isometric exercise in 264 children who were selected from the low, middle, and upper quintile of the distribution of blood pressure of an entire school population. We sought to identify patterns of response to exercise that correlated with both resting cardiac output and resting blood pressure. During isometric exercise, systolic pressure adjusted for age and body size increased in all groups. The low group's mean pressure remained significantly lower than the high group's pressure throughout the entire exercise period. Body size adjusted group systolic and diastolic blood pressure level differences exist during dynamic exercise. The product of the systolic blood pressure times the heart rate, in the high blood pressure group, was significantly higher throughout dynamic exercise than in the other two groups. Elevated resting resistance is correlated with elevated resistance during isometric exercise and elevated diastolic blood pressure during dynamic exercise. Cardiac index had a significant negative correlation to age (r = -0.58) at all levels of blood pressure. This observation, in children, lends some support to the concept of the evolution from a hyperkinetic circulation in early childhood to a circulation with lower cardiac output and more elevated systemic vascular resistance at an older age.
- Copyright © 1983 by American Heart Association