Studies of the mechanisms underlying impairment of beta-adrenoceptor-mediated effects in human hypertension.
To investigate the impairment of beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness in human hypertension, we evaluated the effect of an oral salt load (400 mEq/day of NaCl for 7 days) on plasma catecholamine concentrations and beta-adrenoceptor-mediated effects in 11 young patients with mild essential hypertension. Responses of heart rate and plasma cAMP to isoproterenol administration were used as indices of beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness. Salt loading induced a significant reduction in the dose of isoproterenol required to raise the heart rate by 25 bpm (CD25) (from 7.6 +/- 1.5 to 5.3 +/- 0.9 micrograms, p less than 0.05) and an increase in the slopes of the regression lines for heart rate changes and isoproterenol doses (delta HR/IS) (from 3.3 +/- 0.6 to 4.7 +/- 0.7, p less than 0.05) and for plasma cyclic AMP (cAMP) level changes and isoproterenol doses (delta cAMP/IS) (from 0.3 +/- 0.06 to 1.4 +/- 0.3, p less than 0.05). After salt loading there was a significant reduction in plasma catecholamine concentrations with a significant relationship between changes in upright plasma epinephrine levels and changes in CD25 (r = 0.904, p less than 0.01) and in the slopes for delta HR/IS (r = 0.983, p less than 0.001) and delta cAMP/IS (r = 0.922, p less than 0.001). These results support the hypothesis that the impairment of beta-adrenoceptor sensitivity observed in human hypertension is associated with a beta-adrenoceptor overstimulation due to chronically elevated adrenergic tone.
- Copyright © 1983 by American Heart Association