Effects of antihypertensive therapy on serum lipoproteins.
Several drugs used for standard antihypertensive therapy may also interact with the lipoprotein metabolism. The following has been observed after 1 to 12 months of treatment. Various thiazide-type diuretics may significantly increase the potentially atherogenic serum low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or very-LDL-C-fractions, while the antiatherogenic high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is largely unchanged. Certain loop-diuretics also increase the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and both types of diuretics elevated serum triglycerides (Tg) in some but not all studies. LDL-C was increased in diuretic-treated men and in chlorthalidone-treated postmenopausal women, but not in chlorthalidone-treated premenopausal women. The latter may be protected from this effect. Only two diuretics evaluated, namely indapamide and spironolactone, had no apparent influence on lipoproteins. Beta-blocker monotherapy may often increase Tg and slightly decrease HDL-C. The magnitude of these changes did not distinctly differ between highly cardioselective and nonselective beta-blockers, but it was less pronounced on beta-blockers than on those without intrinsic sympatholytic activity. Other sympatholytics such as reserpine, methyldopa, clonidine, debrisoquine, the alpha-beta-blocker labetalol, or the postsynaptic alpha-blocker, prazosin, did not affect or even slightly decrease Tg or total C, LDL-C, and very-LDL-C values. With combinations, a tendency for increased Tg and lower HDL-C was also apparent during thiazide-type diuretic-beta-blocker therapy. However, diuretic-induced increases in LDL-C were prevented or reversed by concomitant beta-blockade, but not by reserpine, methyldopa, or clonidine. Monotherapy with the potent direct vasodilator, carprazidil, improved blood pressure and significantly increased HDL-C. Prospective long-term studies are needed to clarify the course and the pathogenic and prognostic relevance of lipoprotein changes induced by certain diuretics or beta-blockers.
- Copyright © 1983 by American Heart Association