Hemodynamic response: decrease in cardiac output vs reduction in vascular resistance.
From a hemodynamic point of view, an adequate response to antihypertensive therapy would be restoration of a normal circulatory system. In most patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension considered to need drug therapy, the cardinal hemodynamic disturbance is an increased total peripheral resistance (TPR) and a normal or reduced cardiac output (CO). During a 10- to 17-year follow-up of untreated hypertensives, a gradual increase in TPR, increase in MAP, and a decrease in CO and stroke volume (SV) were seen. Hemodynamic responses to chronic drug therapy were studied at rest and during exercise in 250 men with mild to moderate essential hypertension in WHO Stage I. A significant reduction in TPR was seen on thiazide diuretics, nifedipine and verapamil, but there was no increase of subnormal CO or SV. A greater normalization of central hemodynamics was achieved by prazosin, which induced a reduction in TPR and an increase in CO and SV, particularly during exercise. In contrast, beta-blocker therapy was associated with a chronic reduction in CO and heart rate (HR) and usually no reduction in TPRI below pretreatment values. The chronic CO reduction was associated with an increase in arteriovenous oxygen difference. In 14 patients with therapy-resistant hypertension, a marked increase in TPR was found. Captopril induced a reduction in TPR with rest and exercise, and also a reduction in cardiac output. Prolonged therapy for 5 years with beta-blockers did maintain blood pressure control, but with no further decrease in TPR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1983 by American Heart Association