C-Reactive Protein and Cardiovascular Disease: Differences Between Humans and Mice
To the Editor:
We read with great interest the recent article by Zhang et al.1 Zhang et al1 concluded that the results from their study revealed that C-reactive protein may act not only as an inflammation marker but also as a mediator factor in hypertensive cardiac remodeling. The study by Zhang et al1 was done in mice, not in humans. This point may be relevant, because studies have shown that C-reactive protein itself does not appear to be causally related to hypertension and its complications in humans.2–4⇓⇓ Thus, using Mendelian randomization, it was shown that genetically elevated C-reaction protein was neither associated with hypertension nor with ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease in humans.2–4⇓⇓ It is of note that none of these important human studies are cited in the article by Zhang et al.1 We think it may be important for the reader of Hypertension that it is discussed in more detail that the results presented in the article by Zhang et al1 may not be relevant to human hypertension and its complications, only to mice.
Zhang R, Zhang YY, Huang XR, Wu Y, Chung AC, Wu EX, Szalai AJ, Wong BC, Lau CP, Lan HY. C-reactive protein promotes cardiac fibrosis and inflammation in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive cardiac disease. Hypertension. 2010; 55: 953–960.
Davey Smith G, Lawlor DA, Harbord R, Rumley A, Lowe GD, Day IN, Ebrahim S. Association of C-reactive protein with blood pressure and hypertension: lifecourse confounding and Mendelian randomisation tests of causality. Arterioscl Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005; 25: 1051–1056.
Elliott P, Chambers JC, Zhang W, Clarke R, Hopewell JC, Peden JF, Erdmann J, Braund P, Engert JC, Bennett D, Coin L, Ashby D, Tzoulaki I, Brown IJ, Mt-Isa S, McCarthy MI, Peltonen L, Freimer NB, Farrall M, Ruokonen A, Hamsten A, Lim N, Froguel P, Waterworth DM, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Jarvelin MR, Mooser V, Scott J, Hall AS, Schunkert H, Anand SS, Collins R, Samani NJ, Watkins H, Kooner JS. Genetic Loci associated with C-reactive protein levels and risk of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2009; 302: 37–48.