Figure 3. Reproducibility of morning surge in BP and cardiovascular risk. Patient A exhibits an appropriate morning surge; patient B exhibits a reproducible exaggerated surge; patient C exhibits an exaggerated variability of morning surge (irreproducible). The maximum morning BP surge occurring in patient C may be the most potent risk for triggering a cardiovascular event.
Figure 4. Definition of morning BP surge reactivity. The degree of morning BP surge is closely associated with the physical activity (A). Morning BP surge reactivity is defined as the slope of SBP against physical activity (B). Figure C demonstrates 2 typical patients with low- and high-morning BP surge. Even when their morning BP surge is similar to that of low-reactive patients, high-reactive patients tend to have greater risk than low-reactive patients when the physical activity is maximized.