Hypercontrols in Genotype-Phenotype Analysis Reveal Ancestral Haplotypes Associated With Essential Hypertension
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The angiotensinogen gene locus has been associated with essential hypertension in most populations analyzed to date. Increased plasma angiotensinogen levels have been proposed as an underlying cause of essential hypertension in whites; however, differences in the genetic regulation of plasma angiotensinogen levels have also been reported for other populations. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with plasma angiotensinogen levels and the risk of essential hypertension in the Mexican population. We genotyped 9 angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms in 706 individuals. Four polymorphisms, A-6, C4072, C6309, and G12775, were associated with increased risk, and the strongest association was found for the C6309 allele (χ2=23.9; P=0.0000009), which resulted in an odds ratio of 3.0 (95% CI: 1.8–4.9; P=0.000006) in the recessive model. Two polymorphisms, A-20C (P=0.003) and C3389T (P=0.0001), were associated with increased plasma angiotensinogen levels but did not show association with essential hypertension. The haplotypes H1 (χ2=8.1; P=0.004) and H5 (χ2=5.1; P=0.02) were associated with essential hypertension. Using phylogenetic analysis, we found that haplotypes 1 and 5 are the human ancestral haplotypes. Our results suggest that the positive association between angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with essential hypertension is not simply explained by an increase in plasma angiotensinogen concentration. Complex interactions between risk alleles suggest that these haplotypes act as “superalleles.”
- Received May 17, 2011.
- Revision received July 3, 2011.
- Accepted January 28, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.