5-HT, alpha-adrenoceptors, and blood pressure. Effects of ketanserin in essential hypertension and autonomic insufficiency.
The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) antagonist, ketanserin, has a high affinity for 5-HT2-receptors but it also binds to alpha 1-adrenoceptors. The compound (10 mg i.v.) lowered mean arterial pressure by 22% +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM, p less than 0.001) in 30 patients with essential hypertension. Measurements of heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac filling pressures, forearm blood flow, renal blood flow, and glomerular filtration rate revealed a hemodynamic pattern compatible with vasodilation of both resistance and capacitance vessels. This was accompanied by moderate reflex cardiostimulation. Ketanserin did not alter the pressor effect of bolus injections of (-)-phenylephrine hydrochloride (25, 50, 100, and 200 micrograms i.v.). Ketanserin also had a distinct hypotensive effect in four normotensive patients with autonomic insufficiency due to an efferent sympathetic lesion, who were unresponsive to phentolamine (20 mg i.v.). Thus, ketanserin in the dose we have used appears to lower blood pressure independently of alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockade. On the other hand, in patients with essential hypertension the antihypertensive effect of ketanserin was blunted by pretreatment with prazosin (12 mg/day). Therefore, a certain degree of alpha 1-adrenergic tone seems to be required for the compound to exert its full antihypertensive action. The findings are indirect evidence for a role of 5-HT in the maintenance of increased vascular resistance in essential hypertension. This may be related, at least in part, to the alleged amplifying effect of 5-HT on alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction.
- Copyright © 1984 by American Heart Association