Role of cardiac factors in the initial hypotensive action by beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agents.
The blood pressure decrease after beta-blockade is delayed and there are little data on the hemodynamic events associated with the initial decrease in blood pressure. The present study measured the hemodynamics of the initial hypotensive action of timolol maleate, a nonselective beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agent, in 10 patients with essential hypertension. Frequent measurements were made for the first 30 hours of treatment, and follow-up measurements made at 3 and 6 weeks. Before treatment, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference were 115.9 +/- 9.1 mm Hg, 4.65 +/- 1.05 liter/min, and 55.0 +/- 9.6 ml/liter, respectively. At 3 hours after the first dose of timolol, blood pressure had fallen 13.5 +/- 8.2 mm Hg (p less than 0.05). This was preceded by an initial decrease in cardiac output, which was not associated with a simultaneous decrease in blood pressure, and by an increase of arteriovenous oxygen difference. The early, statistically significant, decrease in cardiac output was followed by a return to normal output, which coincided with the onset of blood pressure reduction. The magnitude of the initial decrease of cardiac output and of the initial increase in arteriovenous oxygen difference was significantly correlated to the later decrease in blood pressure (7 hours after first dose). These hemodynamic observations are consistent with the notion that early underperfusions of tissue play a role in the initial hypotensive action of beta-blockers. After 6 weeks, the blood pressure remained lower but the cardiac output was again decreased at that point. As with many antihypertensive agents, there was a difference between the early and late hemodynamic pattern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1984 by American Heart Association