Abstract 188: Yogurt Consumption, Blood Pressure, and Incident Hypertension: A Longitudinal Study in the Framingham Heart Study
Background Yogurt is a nutrient-dense, low-fat dairy product. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association of yogurt consumption with blood pressure (BP) levels and hypertension prevention among adults participating in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort (exams 5 to 8 [1998-2001 to 2005-2008]).
Methods In each exam, dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire; BP was measured following standardized procedures; and anti-hypertensive medication use was obtained by physician-elicited self-report. Our analyses included 2,197 adults (with 7351 observations) who were free of hypertension at exam 5 (baseline) and had valid measurements of yogurt intake and BP. Logistic regression was used to examine incident hypertension (defined as systolic BP (SBP) ≥140mmHg, or diastolic BP (DBP) ≥90mmHg, or used anti-hypertensive medication). A repeated measures model was used to examine annualized BP change in exam intervals adjusting for BP and anti-hypertensive medication use at the beginning of each interval. All analyses were adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors (including diet quality).
Results At baseline, 44% (960 of 2197) of participants consumed ≥1 serving of yogurt per month (i.e. defined as consumers); and mean [SD] SBP and DBP were 117  mmHg and 72  mmHg, respectively. BP and yogurt intake both increased over the 14-year follow up; and 913 participants developed incident hypertension. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors and cholesterol-lowering medication use, people who consumed >2% of total calories (kcal) from yogurt (i.e. high-intake group) had lower risk of incident hypertension than non-consumers (OR [95%CI] = 0.69 [0.54-0.87]). The high-intake group had 0.19±0.09 mmHg smaller annualized elevation of SBP than non-consumers (P=0.04). Excluding the anti-hypertensive medication users at follow-up strengthened the longitudinal association between yogurt intake and annualized SBP change. All findings retained when further controlling for body mass index (BMI) and the change of BMI. Yogurt intake was not related to DBP change over time.
Conclusion Higher yogurt intake, as part of a healthy diet pattern, may be beneficial for BP control and hypertension prevention.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.