Abstract 267: Hemoglobin, Endothelial Cells, and TLRs. Common Connection?
Introduction: Patients suffering from chronic hereditary hemolytic anemic syndromes, such as sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia, are often at risk for systemic and pulmonary vascular disease. It has been suggested that chronic exposure to cell free hemoglobin (CFH) may contribute to some vascular diseases associated with these syndromes such as pulmonary arterial hypertension. To date, the vasculotoxic effects of CFH have mostly been attributed to its pro-oxidant and nitric oxide scavenging characteristics. However, emerging evidence suggests CFH may contribute to inflammation by directly activating a signaling cascade event by binding to a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) or a toll like receptor (TLR) on vascular endothelial cells. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that CFH would increase the activity of transcription factors, NF-κb and HIF-1α, via a MyD88-dependent pathway.
Methods: Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) were transfected with either an NF-κB or HIF-1α luciferase reporter gene and treated with CFH (ferrous, ferric, and ferryl forms) in the presence or absence of SOD, catalase, dexamethasome, MyD88 inhibitor, or, the PHD inhibitor, DMOG. Messenger RNA for HIF-1α and HIF-2 were also measured after treatments.
Results: All three states of hemoglobin increased NF-κB and HIF-1α activity in a dose response fashion, with ferryl inducing the greatest activity of both NF-κB and HIF-1α. Time course studies showed that NF-κB and HIF-1α activity tracked together. A unique synergy was noted with co-treatment of ferryl and DMOG. Co-treatment with SOD or catalase did not inhibit the CFH-induced NF-κB or HIF-1α response. Dexamthasome and MyD88 inhibition reduced the CFH-induced NF-κB and HIF-1α activity.
Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis, that CFH may activate a TLR or PRR signaling cascade subsequently activating MyD88-NF-κB and HIF-1α. Our data, that showed SOD and/or catalase did not block CFH effects, suggests that this event is not mediated by CFH pro-oxidant characteristics. CFH-induced HIF-1α was blocked by NF-κB inhibition with either, Dexamethasome or MyD88 inhibition emphasizing the importance of NF-κB in the HIF-1α pathway.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.