Abstract 379: Insulin Attenuated Albuminuria by Upregulating Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) in Type 1 Diabetic Akita Mice
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microvascular complication of diabetes that is clinically diagnosed by a progressive increase in albuminuria. Alterations within renin angiotensin system balance contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a metallocarboxypetidase, has a renoprotective role due to its ability to form Angiotensin (1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] by degrading Angiotensin II (Ang II). Accumulating evidence shows that strict glycemic control attenuates diabetic kidney damage. Therefore, the aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that normalizing hyperglycemia with insulin will reduce albuminuria by increasing ACE2 in Akita diabetic mice. Type 1 diabetic Akita mice (C57BL/6-Ins2Akita/J) and their wild type (WT) littermates were used. Metabolic parameters were monitored weekly. Urine was collected over 24 hours to measure the urinary albumin, total protein and ACE2 activity. Akita mice developed significant hyperglycemia (Akita: 452±6; WT: 118±2 mg/dL), hypoinsulinemia (Akita: 0.5; WT: 1.5 ng/mL) and hypoadiponectinemia (Akita: 3.0; WT: 6.0 μg/mL) compared to WT mice. There was a significant increase in urinary albumin excretion (Akita: 2.1±0.2; WT: 0.2±0.06 mg/day) in Akita mice compared to WT mice. In addition, Akita mice demonstrated a significant decrease in renal (Akita: 3±0.3; WT: 4.1±0.1 pmol/hr/μg protein) and urinary (Akita: 0.2±0.03; WT: 0.7±0.1 pmol/hr/μg protein) ACE2 activity compared to WT mice (P<0.05). Western blot & immunohistochemistry revealed downregulation of renal ACE2 & nephrin protein expression in Akita mice compared to WT mice. Treatment with insulin implants (LinβitR) for 10 weeks significantly decreased hyperglycemia in Akita mice (treated: 135±21; untreated: 452±6 mg/dL). Insulin treatment significantly decreased urinary albumin excretion (treated: 0.18±0.2; untreated: 2.1±0.2 mg/day) and increased urinary ACE2 activity (treated: 1.3±0.3; untreated: 0.2±0.03 pmol/hr/μg protein) in Akita mice. In conclusion, normalizing hyperglycemia in Akita mice with insulin increased ACE2 activity and attenuated albuminuria.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.