Abstract 396: Inhibition of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain-containing Protein Downregulates Vascular Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor
Background: Prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD) mediates hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and thereby induces proteasomal degradation of HIF-1α. Inhibition of PHD by hypoxia or hypoxia mimetics such as cobalt chloride (CoCl2) stabilizes HIF-1 and increases the expression of target genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Although hypoxia activates the systemic renin angiotensin system (RAS), the role of PHD in regulating RAS remains unknown. We examined the effect of PHD inhibition on the expression of angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and its signaling.
Methods and Results: Hypoxia (1% O2), CoCl2 (100-300 μmol/L), and dimethyloxalylglycine (0.25-1.0 mmol/L), all known to inhibit PHD, reduced AT1R expression by 37.7±7.6, 39.6±8.4-69.7±9.9, and 13.4±6.1-25.2±7.0%, respectively (p<0.01) in cultured vascular smooth muscle cell. The same stimuli increased the expression of nuclear HIF-1α and VEGF (p<0.05), suggesting that PHD activity is inhibited. Knockdown of PHD2, a major isoform of PHDs, by RNA interference also reduced AT1R expression by 55.3±6.0% (p<0.01). CoCl2 decreased AT1R mRNA through transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms (p<0.01 and <0.05, respectively). CoCl2 and PHD2 knockdown diminished Ang II-induced ERK phosphorylation (P<0.01). Over-expression of the constitutively active HIF-1α did not impact the AT1R gene promoter activity. Oral administration of CoCl2 (14 mg/kg/day) to C57BL/6J mice receiving Ang II infusion (490 ng/kg/min) for 4 weeks significantly reduced the expression of AT1R in the aorta by 60.9±11.3% (p<0.05) and attenuated coronary perivascular fibrosis by 85% (p<0.01) without affecting blood pressure. However, CoCl2 did not affect Ang II-induced renal interstitial fibrosis.
Conclusion: PHD inhibition downregulates AT1R expression independently of HIF-1α, reduces the cellular response to Ang II, and attenuates profibrotic effect of Ang II on the coronary arteries. PHD inhibition may be beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, in which activation of RAS plays a critical role.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.