Abstract 489: Mechanisms of Carbon Monoxide Attenuation of Tubuloglomerular Feedback
Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is an autoregulatory mechanism of the renal microcirculation in which the macula densa (MD) senses NaCl concentration in the lumen of the nephron and sends a signal that controls glomerular filtration rate by constricting the afferent arteriole (Af-Art). We have shown that MD depolarization is sufficient for inducing TGF. Carbon monoxide (CO), either endogenous or exogenous, is known to inhibit TGF, at least in part via cGMP. However, whether cGMP-independent mechanisms are involved, and where in the TGF cascade CO exerts its inhibitory effect, remain unknown. Thus we hypothesize that CO, acting via both cGMP-dependent and -independent mechanisms, attenuates TGF by acting downstream from MD cell depolarization. In vitro, microdissected rabbit Af-Arts and their attached MD were simultaneously perfused and TGF was measured as the decrease in Af-Art diameter. Depolarization of the MD was induced by switching luminal KCl from 4 to 50 mM in the presence of the potassium ionophore valinomycin, while adding the CO-releasing molecule CORM-3 to the MD perfusate at non-toxic concentrations. CORM-3 blunted depolarization-induced TGF at a concentration of 50 μM, from 3.6±0.4 to 2.5±0.4 μm (P<0.01), and completely abolished it at a concentration of 100 μM, to 0.1±0.1 μm (P<0.001, n=6). Similar results were found with 100 μM CORM-3 when depolarization was induced by nystatin (3.0±0.2 vs. 0.4±0.2 μm, P<0.001, n=6). This indicates that CO inhibits TGF acting downstream from depolarization. When cGMP generation was blocked with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor LY-83583 (1 μM) added to the MD, CORM-3 no longer had an effect on depolarization-induced TGF at 50 μM (2.9±0.4 vs. 3.0±0.4 μm), but retained partial inhibitory effect on TGF at 100 μM (1.3±0.2 μm, P=0.02, n=9). This suggests that CO acts via cGMP at low concentrations, but additional mechanisms of action may be involved at higher concentrations. Finally, we confirmed that cGMP inhibits TGF downstream from MD depolarization by adding the degradation-resistant cGMP analog dibutyryl-cGMP (500 μM), which attenuated depolarization-induced TGF (from 3.9±0.5 to 0.6±0.2 μm, P<0.01, n=6). Our results could help explain the physiological role of CO in controlling the renal microcirculation.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.