Abstract 524: Extracellular Guanosine Regulates Extracellular Adenosine Levels
Extracellular adenosine modulates cardiovascular and renal function. While measuring extracellular purines in biological samples, we observed a correlation between levels of adenosine and guanosine. This observation led us to test the hypothesis that extracellular guanosine regulates extracellular adenosine levels in the cardiovascular and renal systems. Rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells in culture were incubated with adenosine and/or guanosine. In the absence of added adenosine, exogenous guanosine (30 μmol/L) had little effect on extracellular adenosine levels, indicating that extracellular guanosine does not trigger the release or production of adenosine. Without added guanosine and 1 hour after adding 3 μmol/L of exogenous adenosine, extracellular adenosine levels were only 0.125 ± 0.020 μmol/L, indicating rapid disposition of extracellular adenosine by a monolayer of cells. In contrast, extracellular adenosine levels 1 hour after adding 3 μmol/L of adenosine plus guanosine (30 μmol/L) were 1.173 ± 0.061 μmol/L (9-fold higher; p<0.0001), indicating slow disposition of extracellular adenosine in the presence of extracellular guanosine. Extracellular guanosine impeded the disposition of extracellular adenosine not only in preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells, but also in rat preglomerular vascular endothelial cells, mesangial cells, cardiac fibroblasts and kidney epithelial cells, as well as in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells, coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells and coronary artery endothelial cells. In rats, infusions of guanosine per se had little effect on cardiovascular/renal variables, yet markedly enhanced the effects of co-infusions of adenosine. For example, in control rats, adenosine (0.3 μmol/kg/min) only modestly decreased mean arterial blood pressure (from 114 ± 4 to 100 ± 4 mm Hg). In contrast, in guanosine-treated rats (10 μmol/kg/min), adenosine profoundly decreased blood pressure (from 109 ± 4 to 79 ± 3 mm Hg; p<0.0001 vs non-guanosine treated group).
Conclusion: Extracellular guanosine powerfully regulates extracellular adenosine levels by altering adenosine disposition and this occurs in many, perhaps most, cell types in the cardiovascular system and kidneys.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.