Abstract 54: Tissue Oxygenation Using Fractional Hypoxia Correlates Inversely With Blood Flow in Human Renovascular Disease (RVD) and Essential Hypertension (EH)
Determinants of Intra-renal oxygenation in human RVD are poorly understood. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI measures deoxyhemoglobin (R2*) to determine cortical and medullary R2* which have focal variations and gradients. We hypothesized that tissue fractional hypoxia (% of axial kidney area with R2*>30s-1) would correlate better with tissue perfusion, renal blood flow (RBF), and O2 consumption than using regions of interest (ROI).
METHODS: Inpatient studies were performed in EH (n=68 kidneys), and high-grade RVD (n=18 kidneys, 71±5.5% occlusion) before and 3 months after stents. All were treated with ACE/ARB Rx and thiazides during 150 mEq/d Na+ intake. BOLD MR images were obtained at 3T before and after furosemide (20mg IV), and axial images analyzed to estimate R2* levels above 30s-1 (fractional hypoxia) over the entire kidney section. Maximal R2* levels using regions of interest (ROIs) also were determined. Single-kidney cortical and medullary RBF (ml/min) perfusion (ml/min/cc) were determined by MDCT.
Results: RBF was lower in kidneys with untreated RVD than EH (285.6±141 vs. 399±159 ml/min p<0.05), as was cortical perfusion (2.58±.63 vs. 3.50±1.05, p<.05 ). Cortical and medullary R2* did not differ, but fractional hypoxia was greater in RVD as compared to EH (18.3±12 vs. 11.5±8.5%, p<.05). Fractional hypoxia was inversely correlated with blood flow (R=-.29, p<.01) and perfusion (R=-.26, p<.01). R2* fell after furosemide (p<0.01) indicating a role for O2 consumption in determining tissue hypoxia. RBF and cortical perfusion increased after stenting (285±141 vs. 318±178 ml/min and 2.58±0.6 vs. 2.9±0.7ml/min/cc, p<0.05) respectively. Fractional hypoxia, but not cortical or medullary R2* based on ROI-methods, decreased in patients 3 months after renal revascularization (18.3 ±12 vs. 10.52%, p<0.05)
Conclusions: These data demonstrate for the first time that fractional hypoxia in the kidney is directly related to chronically reduced blood flow and cortical perfusion in human RVD, whereas selective ROI-based measures identified only minor changes in peak R2* gradients between cortex and medulla. The reversibility of fractional hypoxia after stenting supports the use of this new method to identify critical renovascular lesions.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.