Abstract 63: Relation between Poor Sleep Quality and Resistant Hypertension
Purpose: Insomnia and short sleep duration have been associated with increased incidence of hypertension. However, the relationship between sleep loss and resistant hypertension (RH), has not been ascertained yet.
Methods: 270 patients at first access to our Hypertension Outpatient Unit were enrolled. RH was defined according as office BP values >140/90 mmHg with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs, or controlled BP with 4 or more drugs, including a diuretic. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were assessed. Poor sleep quality was defined as PSQI>5, mild-to-severe depressive symptoms as BDI score >10. Patients with self-reported sleep apneas or snoring were excluded (n=21).
Results: Complete data were available for 234 patients (males 51%, mean age 58±13 years, BMI 26±5 kg/mq, antihypertensive treatment 84%, previous CV events 12%, diabetes 8%, smoking 15%, hypercholesterolemia 60%). Mean sleep duration was 6.4±1.6 hours, with a 49% prevalence of short sleep duration (<6 hours) and similar in both sexes. Conversely, women had higher PSQI scores (5.2 vs 3.6, p=0.03) and prevalence of poor sleep quality (46% vs 30% in men, p=0.01). Women showed also higher BDI scores (4.5 vs 1.8, p=0.006) and prevalence of depressive symptoms than men (20% vs 7%, p=0.003). RH patients (15%) had higher PSQI (5.8 vs 4.1, p=0.03), a difference shown in women (6.8 vs 4.8, p=0.04) but not in men (4.7 vs 3.5, p=0.37). The association between BDI score and RH showed a similar behavior (overall 3.6 vs 2.8, p=0.02; women 5.1 vs 3.7, p=0.03; men: 2.0 vs 1.9, p=0.53). In a multiple logistic regression analysis (including age, sex, obesity, diabetes, previous CV events, sleep duration, use of hypnotic drugs) poor sleep quality was independently associated with RH (OR 2.2, CI95% 1.1-5.3). However this relationship lost significance when also depressive symptoms were included in the model (p=0.12).
Conclusions: Short sleep duration is highly prevalent in hypertensive patients. This condition is accompanied by poor sleep quality and depressive symptoms in women. Poor sleep quality is associated with a 2-fold higher probability of having RH. This association could be mediated by the presence of depressive symptoms.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.