Abstract 249: Male Mice with XX Sex Chromosome Complement Exhibit Reduced Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension and Atherosclerosis
Objective: Hypertension and atherosclerosis exhibit sexual dimorphism, partially ascribed to effects of sex hormones. However, recent studies suggest that sex chromosome complement may also contribute to sexual dimorphism of these diseases. The renin-angiotensin system has been suggested to contribute to sexual dimorphism of hypertension and atherosclerosis. However, the relative contribution of sex hormones, versus chromosomes, in the regulation of angiotensin II (AngII)-mediated responses is unknown. We hypothesized that the presence of an XX chromosome complement in male hyperlipidemic mice would reduce AngII-induced hypertension and atherosclerosis.
Methods and Results: Male Ldlr-/- mice with an Sry mutation but with an Sry transgene on autosomes were bred to Ldlr-/- females to generate XY or XX males. Male XY or XX mice were segregated to sham-operated or orchiectomized (ORC) groups and fed a high fat diet (42% kcal from fat). Two weeks later, mice were infused with AngII (1,000 ng/kg/min) for 4 weeks. In the presence of sex hormones (sham groups), systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly lower in AngII-infused XX than XY males (XY, 136 ± 4; XX, 119 ± 4 mmHg, p=0.024). In XY males, ORC had no significant effect on SBP compared to sham (ORC XY, 129 ± 6 mmHg; p=0.48). However, following castration of XX males, SBP significantly increased (ORC XX 135 ± 3 mmHg; p =0.002). In XY males, ORC resulted in a significant increase in atherosclerotic lesion surface area in the aortic arch (sham, 19 ± 4; ORC, 32 ± 7%; p=0.04). In contrast, ORC had no significant effect on lesion surface area in XX males (sham, 17 ± 3; ORC, 15 ± 2%; p=0.53). Moreover, in the absence of sex hormones, lesion surface area was markedly increased in XY compared to XX males (XY, 32 ± 7; XX, 15 ± 2%; p=0.002).
Conclusions: These results demonstrate that effects of testosterone to regulate AngII-induced hypertension and atherosclerosis are dependent on sex chromosome complement. In XY males, testosterone protects against AngII-induced atherosclerosis. In XX males, testosterone protects against AngII-induced hypertension. Moreover, there is pronounced effect of XY chromosome complement to promote AngII-induced atherosclerosis in males.
Author Disclosures: Y. Alsiraj: None. S. Thatcher: None. L.A. Cassis: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.