Abstract 127: Agonistic Autoantibodies to Angiotensin II Type I Receptor Contributes Partly to Placental Ischemia-induced Cerebrovascular Abnormalities
Placental ischemia, a characteristic feature of preeclampsia, leads to impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation, cerebral edema, and increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability; however, the placental factors that contribute to these cerebral abnormalities are not clear. Agonistic autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA) are increased in preeclamptic patients as well as in a rat model of preeclampsia induced by placental ischemia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that AT1-AA mediates placental ischemia-induced cerebrovascular abnormalities. To determine whether the AT1-AA contributes to impaired CBF autoregulation, we infused purified rat AT1-AA into normal pregnant rats from gestational day (GD) 12 to 19 via mini-osmotic pumps and measured CBF using laser Doppler flowmetry on GD 19. Autoregulatory index increased from 0.7 to 1.0±0.2 in the AT1-AA infused group over the range of 120 to 160 mmHg compared to pregnant controls (0.3 to 0.5±0.1 over the same range of pressures, p<0.05) suggesting impaired CBF autoregulation. However, AT1-AA infusion did not affect brain water content at baseline blood pressures (104±2 mmHg in normal pregnant rats vs. 113±2 mmHg in AT1-AA infused rats, p<0.01). To determine the role of endogenous AT1-AA in mediating placental ischemia-induced cerebrovascular abnormalities, losartan (5 mg/kg/day), an AT1 receptor antagonist, was administered in the drinking water from GD 14 to 19. Losartan reduced anterior brain water content from 79.6±0.2% in placental ischemic rats to 79.2±0.1% (compared to 79.1±0.1% in normal pregnant untreated rats) and BBB permeability from 0.06±0.01 in placental ischemic rats to 0.03±0.03 (compared to 0.03±0.004 in normal pregnant untreated rats). These results indicate that impaired CBF autoregulation in response to placental ischemia is due, at least in part, to increases in circulating AT1-AA. While AT1-AA infusion, by itself, did not alter brain water content at baseline blood pressures, the beneficial effects of losartan in placental ischemic rats suggests that the renin-angiotensin system may interact with other placental factors to promote cerebral vascular changes common to preeclampsia.
Author Disclosures: J.P. Warrington: B. Research Grant (includes principal investigator, collaborator, or consultant and pending grants as well as grants already received); Significant; AHA Postdoctoral Fellowship. F. Fan: None. B.B. LaMarca: None. R. Dechend: None. G. Wallukat: None. R.J. Roman: None. H.A. Drummond: None. J.P. Granger: None. M.J. Ryan: None.
This research has received full or partial funding support from the American Heart Association, Greater Southeast Affiliate (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Puerto Rico & Tennessee).
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.