Abstract 132: Leptin-mediated Aldosterone Secretion Causes Hypertension in Obese Females
Obesity causes hypertension (HTN) in males and females. While leptin contributes to obesity-induced HTN by increasing sympathetic activity, in males, it is unknown whether similar mechanisms trigger HTN in obese females. Females secrete 3 to 4 times more leptin than males, but do not exhibit high sympathetic tone with obesity. They however show inappropriately high aldosterone levels that positively correlate with adiposity and blood pressure (BP). Here we hypothesized that leptin induces HTN by increasing aldosterone production in obese females. Hypersensitivity to leptin, in lean mice deficient in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) or high leptin levels, in obese Agouti (Ay/a) mice induced HTN (WT: 115±2; KO: 124±2; a/a: 113±1; Ay/a: 128±7mmHg, p<0.05) but did not increase sympathetic control of BP (response to ganglionic blockade). Leptin sensitization and obesity however elevated plasma aldosterone levels and adrenal aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) expression, in females. Chronic leptin (KO+AA: 115±5; Ay/a+AA: 114±5mmHg) or mineralocorticoid (KO+spiro:111±5; Ay/a+spiro: 121±6mmHg) receptors inhibition restored BP to baseline levels in females PTP1B KO and obese agouti mice. Leptin or leptin receptor deficiency in female ob/ob and db/db mice, abolished obesity-induced increases in adrenal CYP11B2 and plasma aldosterone while chronic leptin infusion in female mice triggered a dose-dependent increase in adrenal CYP11B2 and plasma aldosterone levels. Leptin-mediated aldosterone secretion was independent of changes in plasma angiotensin II, potassium and corticosterone (index of ACTH levels) and preserved in the presence of losartan or α and β-adrenergic receptors antagonists. Stimulation of human adrenocortical cells with leptin dose-dependently increased CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone production. While investigating the interaction between percentage of body fat, leptin and aldosterone levels in young healthy adult Caucasians we reported a positive correlation between adiposity and aldosterone, and between leptin and aldosterone in adult women only. Together these data suggest that leptin directly regulates aldosterone secretion and that leptin induces HTN via aldosterone dependent mechanisms in obese females.
Author Disclosures: E.J. Belin de Chantemèle: None. M. Cortez-Cooper: None. J. Cannon: None. A. Huby: None.
This research has received full or partial funding support from the American Heart Association, Greater Southeast Affiliate (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Puerto Rico & Tennessee).
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.