Abstract P174: Comparison of Groups With and Without Diabetes Mellitus and Preeclampsia in Pregnancy: A Retrospective Case-control Comparison
Objective: Preeclampsia (PreE) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in pregnancy share many risk factors and consequences. Thus, the interactions between these two disease-processes need to be further examined. We compared normal pregnancies to those complicated with preE, gestational diabetes (GDM), and/or pre-existing DM to assess the effect of DM on placental development and outcomes when this condition is complicated by preE.
Methods: Chart reviews were performed in an IRB approved retrospective case-control design with pregnancies resulting in live born singletons. Total 178 subjects with preE with and without DM or GDM and live born singletons were selected from deliveries in 2008 through 2011 at Scott & White Memorial Hospital, Temple, Texas. These were compared to 443 without preE and with and without DM or GDM. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Duncan’s post-hoc test.
Results: Patients who developed preE had higher systolic and diastolic pressures compared to groups without preE (p < 0.05). Patients with DM or GDM were older (p < 0.05). There was no difference among groups for gravidity (p = 0.21) with the average gravidity of 2.7 (1.8 SD) for 621 subjects having a range of 1 to 14 pregnancies. Patients with preE delivered earlier in pregnancy than those without preE regardless of diabetes status. However, those with preE and DM delivered earlier at 35.0 ± 0.4 weeks than the other two preE groups (p < 0.05), suggesting a more severe condition. Patients with DM who developed preE delivered smaller (p < 0.05) babies (correcting for gestational age at delivery) than those with DM without preE (1.00 ± 0.03 versus 1.16 ± 0.04, respectively). Development of GDM did not result in smaller babies for those pregnancies with preE (1.07 versus 1.09).
Conclusions: The development of preE in those with pre-existing DM led to growth restriction and more severe disease as evidenced by lower birth weights corrected for gestational age and earlier gestational ages at delivery. These differences were not seen in GDM pregnancies. This observation supports the concept that elevated glucose levels during first trimester placental development may alter the placenta and lead to restriction later in pregnancy when a second stimulus triggers preE.
Author Disclosures: J.L. Wilson: None. M.A.M. Co: None. S.H. Afroze: None. R.R. Kalagiri: None. S. Munir: None. N. Drever: None. M.R. Beeram: None. T.J. Kuehl: None. M.N. Uddin: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.