Reactivity to norepinephrine and effect of sodium on blood pressure during weight loss.
Eighteen moderately obese middle-aged men with untreated mild hypertension were randomized to two groups and placed on a low energy diet regimen for 9 to 11 weeks. In Group I (n = 10) the amount of sodium chloride in the diet maintained the urinary sodium excretion at the predieting level. Mean body mass was reduced by 9.1 +/- 0.7 (SEM) kg. Mean intra-arterial pressure showed no significant change. There were significant decreases in heart rate (p less than 0.05) and urinary norepinephrine excretion (p less than 0.05) but not in plasma concentration of norepinephrine. In Group II (n = 8) energy as well as sodium intake was restricted, with a 95 +/- 22 mmol/24 hour reduction of urinary sodium excretion. Body mass decreased by 9.3 +/- 1.1 kg, and mean arterial pressure decreased by -18.9 to -4.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval). There were also significant reductions in heart rate (p less than 0.001) and plasma norepinephrine concentrations (p less than 0.01) but not in urinary norepinephrine excretion. The pressor response (mean arterial pressure) to norepinephrine infusion at different dose rates was significantly elevated (p less than 0.05) in Group I during dieting in comparison with baseline. The blood pressure response to norepinephrine during dieting in patients in Group II was not changed from baseline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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