Endogenous angiotensin-aldosterone-pressure relationships during sodium restriction.
The effects of moderate restriction of dietary sodium and potassium supplementation on plasma levels of renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and cortisol and on arterial pressure were studied in 12 patients with mild essential hypertension. To define hormone-blood pressure relationships, venous hormone levels were measured hourly and intra-arterial pressure continuously for 24 hours after 4 to 6 weeks of sodium restriction, 4 to 6 weeks of potassium supplementation, and a similar period of control diet. Our results show that compared with the control diet, moderate sodium restriction was associated with increased levels of aldosterone but no overall change in renin, angiotensin II, or cortisol levels. Further, slopes of regression lines relating log renin and log angiotensin II to aldosterone were increased, as were log cortisol/aldosterone regression lines. On the contrary, regression lines of log renin and log angiotensin II versus arterial pressure were unaltered by sodium restriction. Hormone and blood pressure relationships were not changed by the potassium supplemented diet. Although confirmatory data are needed, our findings suggest that moderate sodium restriction enhances aldosterone responsiveness to endogenous angiotensin II and adrenocorticotropic hormone without diminishing the pressor activity of endogenous angiotensin II. These results may explain in part the disappointingly small hypotensive effect of modest sodium restriction in mild essential hypertension.
- Copyright © 1985 by American Heart Association