Hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors in hemodialyzed diabetic patients.
In a retrospective study, the cause of death and the cardiovascular risk conferred by hypertension and other risk factors were analyzed in 200 diabetic and 200 nondiabetic patients who were matched for age, sex, year of admission, and center of treatment. Total and cardiovascular mortality were considerably higher in diabetics, cardiovascular mortality being 4.8 times higher in patients with type I and 3.0 times higher in those with type II diabetes compared to matched controls. Cardiovascular mortality progressively increased with age and had not improved in recent years. In both types I and II diabetes, the rate (58%) and proportion (38%) of deaths from cardiovascular causes were significantly higher in diabetics than in matched controls. Myocardial infarction (13%) and stroke (7%) accounted only for a minority of cardiovascular mortality, the majority (80%) being due to "sudden death of unknown cause." Autopsy was carried out in 33% of patients with sudden death. A documented history of long-standing hypertension increased cardiovascular death in diabetic more than in nondiabetic patients. Diabetic retinopathy (an index of microangiopathy) and absence of peripheral pulses, amputation, or history of myocardial infarction, stroke, or transient ischemic attacks (as evidence of macroangiopathy) caused surprisingly little increase in relative risk for cardiovascular death. In diabetics but not in nondiabetics, cardiomegaly, particularly in association with electrocardiographic abnormalities, was a strong predictor of cardiovascular death.
- Copyright © 1985 by American Heart Association